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⇓ As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision making of the administrative units of government for example, tribunals, boards or commissions that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport. ⇓

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    In addition to the regulation of the administrative procedure, the VwVfG also constitutes the legal protection in administrative law beyond the court procedure.

    The preliminary proceeding gives each citizen, feeling unlawfully mistreated by an authority, the possibility to object and to force a review of an administrative act without going to court. Therefore, it is necessary to have the existence of a conflict in public law without any constitutional aspects and no assignment to another jurisdiction. Before going to court, citizens must usually first object to the decision with the administrative body who made it. This is called "bezwaar". This procedure allows for the administrative body to correct possible mistakes themselves and is used to filter cases before going to court. Sometimes, instead of bezwaar, a different system is used called "administratief beroep" administrative appeal. The difference with bezwaar is that administratief beroep is filed with a different administrative body, usually a higher ranking one, than the administrative body that made the primary decision. Administratief beroep is available only if the law on which the primary decision is based specifically provides for it. An example involves objecting to a traffic ticket with the district attorney "officier van justitie", after which the decision can be appealed in court. While administrative decision making bodies are often controlled by larger governmental units, their decisions could be reviewed by a court of general jurisdiction under some principle of judicial review based upon due process United States or fundamental justice Canada. Judicial review of administrative decisions is different from an administrative appeal.
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    S. C. In light of Simon and Schuster, some courts have relied on restitution orders and fines where convicted defendants appeared likely to receive proceeds from the sale of their stories about their crimes. See United States v. Jackson, 978 F. 2d 903, 915 5th Cir. 1992, cert. denied, 508 U. S. 945, 113 S. Ct.
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    Simon and Schuster, Inc. v. Members of New York State Crime Victims Board, 502 U. S. 105 1991. The Court recognized "a compelling interest in compensating victims from the fruits of the crime, but little if any interest in limiting such compensation to the proceeds of the wrongdoer's speech about the crime," Id.
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    Administrative Procedure Act and New York State law. Administrative law, as laid down by the Supreme Court of India, has also recognized two more grounds of judicial review which were recognized but not applied by English Courts, namely legitimate expectation and proportionality. The actions of executive agencies and independent agencies are the main focus of American administrative law. In response to the rapid creation of new independent agencies in the early twentieth century see discussion below, Congress enacted the Administrative Procedure Act APA in 1946. Many of the independent agencies operate as miniature versions of the tripartite federal government, with the authority to "legislate" through rulemaking; see Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations, "adjudicate" through administrative hearings, and to "execute" administrative goals through agency enforcement personnel. Because the United States Constitution sets no limits on this tripartite authority of administrative agencies, Congress enacted the APA to establish fair administrative law procedures to comply with the constitutional requirements of due process.

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However, many have argued that the usefulness of these laws is vastly inadequate in terms of controlling government actions, largely because of institutional and systemic obstacles like a weak judiciary, poorly trained judges and lawyers, and corruption.